Information Sharing – The Impact on Educational Performance of Youth in Foster Care

Information Sharing – The Impact on Educational Performance of Youth in Foster Care

A Review of the Literature

On average, a child who enters the child welfare system will spend approximately two years in foster care.  Youth in foster care contend with a number of challenges that impact their well-being over the course of their lifetime. Often times the instability in their residences and schools, is overshadowed by the stresses of the abuse or neglect they suffered to get them placed in the child welfare system. The machine of the child welfare system doesn’t always put a focus on the overall well-being of youth in its care. As more stakeholders are introduced, the needs and resources expands for these youth. Many of the children in the child welfare system have a number of needs, which makes it necessary for other agencies to be involved in their overall care. The educational system, early intervention system health care system (mental and physical), the juvenile and criminal justice systems are a few of the systems that have access points of interest to these youth. Much of the work required to provide the proper care, tools, resources and support for the youth in care is administered by these different systems.

The biggest challenge in the U.S. foster care system, is the lack of transparency and information sharing between the agencies, and service providers entrusted to advocate for and protect the youth now in their care. Providing the most effective care, is essential to achieving the best outcomes possible for foster youth. Education is key to altering life outcomes and the sharing of information is essential to impacting the educational performance of youth in foster care.

Challenges that youth face in foster care

With so many youth in need, social workers have a case load double or triple their individual capacity, and the bureaucracy of this machine seems to create silos where all can be lost.  The lack of priority on their overall well-being, has often created a gap in the conversations and information sharing between the child welfare system, service providers, care givers and educators. This void also impedes the tools, support, and resources these youth need to find success as adults. Exploring the challenges that youth face in the foster care system, academics have found three areas of difficulty for youth especially in regard to educational success. Hahnel & Van Zile (2012) in their article The Other Achievement Gap, identify mobility, lack of collaboration between systems serving youth, and the lack of educational advocacy as those three key areas of difficulty (437-438). They examine the failures of both the educational system and the welfare legislation in regard to creating stability to help create better outcomes for youth in care.

Mobility

Mobility or lack of stability that foster youth face in out-of-home care plays a significant role in the negative educational outcomes that they experience. Foster youth on average will have one to two home placement changes per year, and over two-thirds will attend three or more elementary schools (Hahnel & Van Zile, 2012, p. 446). Having to navigate a system that often times seems to be working against them, school mobility creates an increase in academic difficulties. The changes in schools so frequently hinders the academic progress, and foster youth fall farther and farther behind every time they change schools. Attendance, low test scores, and grade retention are a few symptoms of the mobility cause. Children in foster care struggle academically and socially in school at higher rates than their peers. As many as 75% of foster youth perform below grade level; 50-80% have been retained at least one year in school; and more than 50% of foster children do not graduate from high school” (Hahnel & Van Zile, 2012, p. 443).

Moving from residence to residence often causes delays in enrollment and a loss of academic credits due to transfers in the middle of semesters. Chambers & Palmer (2011), found that youth lose anywhere from four and six months of academic progress with each school change due to a multitude of factors (p. 1106). As they attempt to deal with the transition of moving to a new home, they are faced with the new teachers, a new curriculum, and new surroundings. Living in this world of never-ending flux, not only impacts the youth, but it creates challenges for the educators, care givers and service providers to fully assess their needs. As youth attempt to transition, often times their records never arrive at their new school, or they get lost or misplaced. This lack of information sharing adds to the challenges that foster youth face.

Lack of Information Sharing

In addition to moving from home to home and school to school, many of these youth are from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, and live in the most disenfranchised communities. Between delayed school enrollments, losing credits due to mid-semester transfers, and being misdiagnosed or undiagnosed regarding their special education status, children lose countless hours of meaningful instructional time over the course of their time in care (Hahnel & Van Zile, 2012, p. 445).  In an effort to improve the educational outcomes for youth in foster care, national policy and practice was introduced. In 2008, the federal Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act was enacted. This act emphasizes educational stability by requiring districts to either keep students in their school of origin or be transferred to and enrolled promptly in a new school. (Cox, 2013, p. 60). Even though laws are in place, there are still barriers to creating open and stable collaboration for the greater good of these youth. Many agencies that provide direct services to the same youth, face challenges because of lack of interpretation and implementation of these laws. Case loads, a lack of follow-thru, and interpretation of laws create a breakdown in collaboration. Studies show that interagency collaboration is important to improving educational outcomes for youth in foster care as is educational advocacy.

Lack of Educational Advocacy

Children in foster care rarely have consistent support around them that encourages a well-rounded self-concept, or the pursuit of advanced education. Not having a well-integrated educational advocate or participation from the care givers, service providers, or families creates additional hurdles. As Beisse & Tyre (2013), acknowledge the way to overcome these barriers to school success, children in foster care need caring and knowledgeable adults who can support their educational development (p. 2). Due to a lack of motivation, or clarity many foster caregivers are less likely to be involved. During their study, they found that school social workers can play a vital role in supporting caregiver involvement (Beisse & Tyre, p. 17).

Alternatives and Models of Success

Foster care is defined as the raising or supervision of foster children, as orphans or delinquents, in an institution, group home, or private home, usually arranged through a government or social-service agency that provides remuneration for expenses. (Dictionary.com Unabridged. 2014). The foster care system has often been under fire and criticized for the number of youth in care, and how it handles those youth once they get into the system. What happens when the system designed to help and support underserved and disadvantaged youth fails? Allen & Vacca, (2012) address this very concern. They examine four alternatives in their study, The Milton Hershey School, Boys Town, Nebraska, and Kinderhaus, and the Seed Foundation. In their research of these long-term care alternatives, these four models have been more successful than the U.S. Foster Care system of achieving their goal. “We continue to embrace a foster care system that has and is failing. The time has come to incorporate the success of the four programs reviewed and embrace them as a pathway to provide a better foster care system for our youth” (qtd. in Allen & Vacca, p. 4).

All four of these models share similarities and success for the youth that they provide care for. They all feature a collective residential communal housing component, parental entities, and integrated school and family counseling. These four models demonstrate a collaborative approach to creating long term positive outcomes for foster care youth. Three of these four models are located here in the United States. SEED Foundation, located in Washington, D.C., follows a boarding school template, and integrates a rigorous academic program with a nurturing residential program which teaches life skills and provides a safe and secure living arrangement (Allen & Vacca, 2012, p. 1070).

The Milton Hershey School, is a twelve month K-12 program where students live in houses on campus with their house parents. Their main goal is for students to leave school prepared to enter life as a fully functional adult. In addition to earning scholarship and credits to cover the most of their costs associated with a college degree, The Milton Hershey School provides on-going support and guidance once a student graduates for at least five years by career counselors (Allen & Vacca, 2012 p. 1069).

Finally, Boys Town, Nebraska, provides a residential family atmosphere for boys and girls that have been abused and neglected by their families. Their services range from a secure residential treatment facility in the village of Boys Town, Nebraska to several outpatient clinics, providing an Integrated Continuum of Child and Family Services at sites throughout the country (Allen & Vacca, 2012, p. 1069). Alternate options to foster care are limited, but those few alternatives may better serve the most disenfranchised of our society.

As Perry & Fusco, (2013) acknowledge that, “For the child welfare system to best meet its goals of safety, permanency, and well-being, it needs to effectively partner with other systems” (p. 3). The opportunity for service providers, care givers, and stakeholders to positively impact the lives of youth in foster care exists.  As youth work to navigate through the challenges of being a child, they are saddled with the additional burden of the being changed by the experience of being in foster care. Many of the leaders in the work to change the child welfare system have agreed and identified that addressing mobility, information sharing, and educational advocacy are essential to impacting the educational outcomes of youth in foster care. Until we identify and adopt the key components of successful models foster children will continue to lag behind in their education.

References

Allen, B. S., & Vacca, J., S. (2011). Bring back orphanages – An alternative to foster care? Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 1067-1071.

Beisse, K., & Tyre, A., (2013).  Caregiver involvement in the education of youth in foster care: An exploratory study. School Social Work Journal, 37(2), (1-20). Retrieved from http://newman.richmond.edu:2384/docview/1429623297?accountid=14731

Casey Family Programs. (2012, August). Shifting resources in child welfare to achieve better outcomes for children and families. Retrieved from http://www.casey.org/media/ShiftingResourcesExecSum.pdf

Chambers, C., & Palmer, E. (2011). Educational stability for children in foster care. Touro Law Review26(4), 1103-1130.

Cox, T., (2013). Improving educational outcomes for children and youths in foster care.  Children & Schools, A Journal of The National Association of Social Workers, 36(3). Retrieved from http://newman.richmond.edu:2512/content/35/1/59

Foster care. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved October 12, 2014, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/foster care

Hahnel, J., & Van Zile, C. (2012). The other achievement gap: Court-dependent youth and educational advocacy. Journal of Law & Education41(3), 435-481.

O’Brien, M., (2012). Knowledge transfer resulting from the improving educational outcomes for children in care conference: How it is helping a child welfare organization to build a long term educational strategy. Children and Youth Services Review, 34(6), 1150-1153

Perry, M. A., & Fusco, R. A. (2013). Child welfare practice in a systems of care framework. In Contemporary issues in child welfare practice (pp. 1-16). NY: Springer Science+Business Media. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-8627-5

Book Review : Big Data

As I was reading Big Data, I found myself thinking about all of the “datification” from a marketing and advertising perspective.  The book identifies all of the aspects of how data is impacting our daily lives, but beyond that it reveals how data is changing how we interact with it and with one another.

From our sleep patterns, and stress indicators to body temperature and blood oxygenation, data collection is big business, and a new stream of revenue for companies as they attempt to “give” consumers more of what they want based on the data they collect.  We get strategic advertisements on every social media platform that we use, every email comes with a message on the sidebar reminding us of all of the websites we’ve searched, or all of the purchases we’ve made.  Is this good for us, or have we opened “Pandora’s Box”?

Big Data compares the evolution of data collection to the aqueducts, the printing press and newspapers, because of the transformational impact it has of society.  Mayer-Schönberger and Cukier define big data as a reference to “things one can do at a large scale that cannot be done at a smaller one, to extract new insights or create new forms of value, in ways that change markets, organizations, the relationship between citizens and governments, and more.” Even though this book has a slant towards the argument that datification and the collection of information is a great thing for society, they do a great job of identifying the hazards and challenges that we may face as a whole if we are not good stewards of this process.

As big data or the capture of data has grown for purposes that are obvious, and also for purposes yet to be determined, the “best practices” also evolve.  This evolution creates new tasks, new groups of people to monitor the processes, and in many cases changes the workforce landscape by replacing human interaction with robots, or computers.

Overall, the authors did an excellent job of “dumbing down” the conversation about big data and the n=all theory of information gathering.  I found in their examples an appreciation for using examples that apply to our day to day, as well as the history of some of the most impactful inventions in society. In the end the most important thing that I was able to extract was that with all of the data,  the algorithms, the analytics and the technology, there still needs to be a space for human “intuition, common sense, and serendipity to ensure that they are not crowded out by data and machine-made answers”.

A Way With Words | 10.4.14

Word of the day!

Penumbra

penumbra

[pi-nuhm-bruh]
noun, plural penumbrae

[pi-nuhm-bree] (Show IPA),penumbras.

1.

Astronomy.

  1. the partial or imperfect shadow outside the complete shadow of anopaque body, as a planet, where the light from the source ofillumination is only partly cut off.
    Compare umbra (def 3a).
  2. the grayish marginal portion of a sunspot.
    Compare umbra (def 3b).
2. a shadowy, indefinite, or marginal area.

Reading Response #5 | That was my idea!

I found the reading this week to be interesting and thought provoking. It was interesting because I found myself being relieved and mortified at the same time with Hollis Phelps’ Zizek, Plagiarism and the Lowering of Expectations. It revealed to me the frailty of knowledge and people as they navigate through scholarly academics.  The concept of knowledge sharing and the thin line that has been exposed not only for students, but for those revered scholars.  It made me think about the output of work and generation that we all have to deal with not only for us as students, but for us in our career lives.  We try to cram more and more into our days, we get more projects with larger deliverables added to our work piles, but the same level of expectations is put on each individual component instead of the body of work.

As I watched The Disruptive Power of Collaboration: An Interview with Clay Shirky, I thought how remarkable that people are out there having this type of conversation.   I took away a number of things from the transcript and the video.  The verbalization of course correction and option B begin more viable than option A must have been something that I needed to see or hear.  I was reminded about something that I believe to be true, but when we operate in a fast pace environment we tend to forget the small details.

“Views | Inside Higher Ed.” Views | Inside Higher Ed. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Oct. 2014.

Literature Review | Has the Lack of Information Sharing Created Additional Challenges for Youth in Foster Care?

Tracey Taylor

Knowledge Management

September 29, 2014

Has the Lack of Information Sharing Created Additional Challenges for Youth in Foster Care?

Youth in foster care contend with a number of challenges that impact their well-being over the course of their lifetime. Often times the instability in their residences and schools, is overshadowed by the stresses of the abuse or neglect they suffered to get them placed in the child welfare system. The machine of the child welfare system doesn’t always put a focus on the overall well-being of youth in its care. With so many youth in need, social workers have a case load double or triple their individual capacity, and the bureaucracy of this machine seems to create silos where all can be lost.   The lack of priority on their overall well-being, has often created a gap in the conversations and information sharing between the child welfare system, service providers, care givers and educators.  This void also impedes the tools, support, and resources these youth need to find success as adults.  Many of these youth spend their whole lives in foster care, and over that time will live in homes that could reach double digits, have a “first day of school” double and triple that of the general population, and have to navigate a system that often times seems to be working against them as they deal with complex emotional issues before the age of 18.  Alternate options to foster care are limited, but those few alternatives may better serve the most disenfranchised of our society.

Exploring the challenges that youth face in the foster care system, academics have found three areas of difficulty for youth especially in regard to educational success.  Hahnel & Van Zile (2012) in their article The Other Achievement Gap identify Mobility, lack of collaboration between systems serving youth, and the lack of educational advocacy as those three key areas of difficulty (437-438).  They examine the failures of both the educational system and the welfare legislation in regard to creating stability to help create better outcomes for youth in the system.

Children in foster care struggle academically and socially in school at a higher rates than their peers.  “As many as 75% of foster youth perform below grade level; 50-80% have been retained at least one year in school; and more than 50% of foster children do not graduate from high school” (qtd. in Hahnel & Van Zile 443).  Mobility is one of the causes for these poor performance outcomes.   Moving from residence to residence often causes delays in enrollment and a loss of academic credits due to transfers in the middle of semesters.  In Educational Stability For Children in Foster Care, Chambers & Palmer (2011)  found that youth lose anywhere from four and six months of academic progress with each school change due to a multitude of factors (1106).  As they attempt to deal with the transition of moving to a new home, they are faced with the new teachers, a new curriculum, and new surroundings.  Living in this world of never-ending flux, not only impacts the youth, but it creates challenges for the educators, care givers and service providers to fully assess their needs.

As more stakeholders are introduced, the needs and resources expands for the youth in care. Many youth that enter the child welfare system there are often other agencies that need to be involved in their overall care.  The educational system, early intervention system, mental health system, health care system, and the juvenile and criminal justice systems. Much of the work required to provide the proper care, tools, resources and support for the youth in care is administered by these different systems.  The biggest challenge in getting the proper care is the lack of information sharing between these multiple agencies.  How can the educational system provide the accurate support in school if they don’t know what mental health issues these youth face? How are health care givers able to supply the correct medication or assign the best doctors, if they are unable to review any previous records?  As Perry & Fusco acknowledge in Child Welfare Practice in a Systems of Care Framework, “For the child welfare system to best meet its goals of safety, permanency, and well-being, it needs to effectively partner with other systems” (3).  All of these questions are valid, so where does the system fail?

The Foster Care system has often been under fire and criticized for the number of youth in care, and how it handles those youth once they get into the system.  What happens when the system designed to help and support underserved and disadvantaged youth fails?  Allen & Vacca address this very concern in Bring back orphanages – An alternative to foster care?  They examine four alternatives in their study, The Milton Hershey School, Boys Town, Nebraska, and Kinderhaus, and the Seed Foundation.  In their research of these long-term care alternatives, these four models have been more successful than the U.S.  Foster Care system of achieving their goal.  “We continue to embrace a foster care system that has and is failing.  The time has come to incorporate the success of the four programs reviewed and embrace them as a pathway to provide a better foster care system for our youth”. (qtd. in Allen & Vacca 4).

In the review of these resources, the lack of information sharing in the current U.S. foster care system has created additional challenges for youth in foster care.  With so many agencies involved in the care of these youth, and the lack of transparency and open dialogue youth are at a greater disadvantage.

References

Allen, B. S., & Vacca, J., S.  (2011). Bring back orphanages – An alternative to foster care? Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 1067-1071.

Chambers, C., & Palmer, E. (2011). Educational stability for children in foster care. Touro Law Review26(4), 1103-1130.

Hahnel, J., & Van Zile, C. (2012). The other achievement gap: Court-dependent youth and educational advocacy. Journal of Law & Education41(3), 435-481.

O’Brien, M., (2012). Knowledge transfer resulting from the improving educational outcomes for children in care conference: How it is helping a child welfare organization to build a long term educational strategy.  Children and Youth Services Review, 34(6), 1150-1153

Perry, M. A., & Fusco, R. A. (2013). Child welfare practice in a systems of care framework. In Contemporary issues in child welfare practice (pp. 1-16). NY: Springer Science+Business Media. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-8627-5.

Reading Response # 4 | 010101010101010101

This week I found myself fascinated by the conversations around Big Data, statistics, and the complexity that goes into designing the algorithms to capture data, as well as the interpretations of the output from that captured data.  I began to wonder about what it means not only to me in my day to day life, but to the outcomes of our decisions and choices.

We are creatures of habit, which is what makes it so easy for us to be mined with technology.  We know what we like, we know what we want, and we know when we want.   For example… I know that when I am hungry or have had a long day, I don’t want to think about what to make for dinner, or where to go for dinner. I have had many “you pick”, “I don’t care” conversations around restaurant choices.  The reality is I do care. I don’t want to try some new restaurant that I have never been to, I want to go get some something to eat at a place that I know I am going to be satisfied without anymore thought about if I am going to like it.  In “What is “Evil” to Google?”, I found that everything is all about perception, and that perception is created by a few and not the many.  We adopt a culture in a workplace or an organization, but that culture is a creation of one or a group of a few, which can change over time to adapt to the trends and market.

Collectively all of the articles this week centered around data mining, and what it means for the individuals in the collective.

big data graphic

Annotated Bibliography

Has Information Sharing Impacted the Educational Performance of Youth in Foster Care?

Allen, B. S., & Vacca, J., S.  (2011). Bring back orphanages – An alternative to foster care? Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 1067-1071. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.01.013

This article discusses the traditional construct of the child welfare system. It examines the challenges that foster care youth face, and why those challenges impede the academic and educational success of those in care.  It takes into consideration a number of studies that reflects how these challenges and changes in the lives of these youth, impacts their ability to learn, create a network of care or resources around them, and why the current model doesn’t work.  In addition, Allen and Vacca show the comparison outcomes between youth in the study who operate in the traditional child welfare system and youth in the study who operate in a new system of care. This article will allow me to look at both sides of the argument, and determine what the data shows in regard to traditional vs non-traditional care. Allen and Vacca, use this study to highlight four non-traditional successful models of care as alternatives to the current model of care and leaves us to question what needs to be evaluated for change.

Beisse, K., & Tyre, A., (2013).  Caregiver involvement in the education of youth in foster care: An exploratory study. School Social Work Journal, 37(2), (1-20). Retrieved from http://newman.richmond.edu:2384/docview/1429623297?accountid=14731

Beisse and Tyre set out to show the impact of caregiver involvement on the educational outcomes of youth in foster care.  Their work looks at several categories of parental involvement, and how those category types of involvement supports the youth their school success.  They did research on the perceptions that caregivers have, and how the care givers can alter their own motivational beliefs as well as the educators to create more positive outcomes for the youth.  In this study they ask two questions: What do caregivers report about their involvement in the education of children in foster care? And what factors are associated with caregiver involvement in the education of children in foster care?  This article will assist me in setting up my argument that the challenges that youth in foster care face can compromise their academic success. In their findings the evidence showed that when schools, families and community partners work together it improves the educational outcomes for foster care youth.

 

 

 

Casey Family Programs. (2012, August). Shifting resources in child welfare to achieve better outcomes for children and families. Retrieved from http://www.casey.org/media/ShiftingResourcesExecSum.pdf

Casey Family Programs is the country’s leading operating foundation solely focused on safely reducing the need for foster care.  The resources on this website and in this report focus on the ways that collaboration can positively impact the outcomes of families and youth in the nation.  They focus on the reduction of youth entering foster care, and also ways to reinforce the family by providing better tools, resources and support systems to create less opportunities for foster care to be an option.

Chambers, C., & Palmer, E. (2011). Educational stability for children in foster care. Touro Law Review, 26(4), 1103-1130. Retrieved from http://www.tourolaw.edu/

In this article by Chambers and Palmer, the conversation about educational stability is front and center.  This article seeks to explore how the school mobility effects the performance of youth in foster care.  It looks at the changes in curriculum, the changes in environment, and the changes in teaching styles and why those changes create a negative outcome to those youth.  This article also highlights the different laws that impact these youth, and how variations in the many laws cause gaps in services for the youth in their mobile state.

Cox, T., (2013). Improving educational outcomes for children and youths in foster care.  Children & Schools, A Journal of The National Association of Social Workers, 36(3). Retrieved from http://newman.richmond.edu:2512/content/35/1/59

In this article, Cox examines the challenges that youth face in the foster care system, and how this impacts their educational success.  He examines the placement of these youth, and how those schools themselves continue to add to the demise of their educational success.  He goes on to identify the impact that law makers have on creating educational stability, how those laws can ensure access and educational equity.  Cox highlights the importance of not just the educators and service providers being actively involved in the process, but the caregivers, including the biological parents. His study looks at the need to continue the evidence based model of data collection so that educators, caregivers, and service providers can enhance their collaboration to focus on outcomes over the life time of these youth.  With this article I intend to show the need for collaboration, and use the data to reflect the outcomes of collaboration vs. no collaboration

Day, A., Edwards, H., Pickover, S., & Leever, M. (2013) When does confidentiality become an impediment rather than a pathway to meeting the educational needs of students in the foster care system? Journal of Social Work Values and Ethics, 10(2). Retrieved from https://newman.richmond.edu:3654/illiad/VRU/illiad.dll?Action=10&Form=75&Value=28336

In this journal article, the writers examine the relationship between the schools and the child welfare agencies.

In addition, it examines the laws that are in place to meet the needs of the youth in care.  It highlights two case studies to show how the laws encourage collaboration without compromising confidentiality.  This will aid me in my study by framing the position in my argument around student confidentiality being a hurdle to effective collaboration and support.

Hahnel, J., & Van Zile, C. (2012). The Other Achievement Gap: Court-dependent youth and educational advocacy. Journal of Law & Education, 41(3), 435-481. Retrieved from http://newman.richmond.edu:2048/login?url=https://richmond.illiad.oclc.org/illiad/VRU/illiad.dll

This article navigates a path for lawmakers to support changes in education law and policy to better support and serve foster care youth.  It highlights the three major obstacles that these youth experience, and how those obstacles impact their educational success.  Hahnel and Van Zile also take the opportunity to address the perceptions and stereotypes that youth in care face from the greater society.   Finally they examine how changes in laws can redefine and help create a better system to produce better outcomes.

Garstka, T., Lieberman, A., Biggs, J., Thompson, B., & Levy, M., (2013). Barriers to cross-systems collaboration in child welfare, education, and the courts: Supporting educational well-being of youth in care through systems change. Journal of Public Child Welfare, 8(2), 190-211. doi 10.1080/15548732.2014.888697.

This article examines the role of deliberate strategies and collaborative opportunities between educators, and child welfare agencies and service providers. It looks at what it means for these youth to have stability across those working for them, and how a more transparent process can foster a better sense of themselves, which could impact the positive outcomes they experience in school.  By reviewing the results and outcomes from this report, it will help me frame out my argument that the impact of being in foster care causes trauma for the youth in care, and why it is important for these agencies to work together to achieve positive educational outcomes.

O’Brien, M., (2012). Knowledge transfer resulting from the improving educational outcomes for children in care conference: How it is helping a child welfare organization to build a long term educational strategy.  Children and Youth Services Review, 34(6), 1150-1153. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.01.043

This article reports on how a child protection agency used knowledge they gained to improve the educational success of youth in its care.  Throughout this article O’Brien examines the deliberate actions this agency took and how this agency navigated their challenges to come up with a system that worked.  What he found during this study, there were a number of themes that surfaced in regard to these youth.  These areas reflected some of the traditional challenges that organizations have when they are attempting to make changes to a system that doesn’t seem to be working effectively.  This article will be helpful to me because it highlights the areas of need, the plan of execution for meeting those needs, and the importance of collaboration

Perry, M. A., & Fusco, R. A. (2013). Child welfare practice in a systems of care framework. In H. Calahane, & C. E. Newhill (Eds.), Contemporary issues in child welfare practice (pp. 1-16). NY: Springer Science+Business Media. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-8627-5.

Perry and Fusco, in this journal article discuss the framework for systems of care as an alternative approach to delivery of services to youth in foster care.  They examine the necessary collaboration between multiple agencies that service these youth, while looking at the complex needs that youth in care face.  This article also identifies that the agencies, families, and youth themselves need to actively participate in the process.

Reading Response #2 | Can you print that out for me?

In this digital age, there is still much debate and research about the differences between reading on electronic tools and reading on paper.

I love the feel and connection to actual books, but decided to purchase an e-book to give it a try.   As I was reading Brandon Keim’s “Why the Smart Reading Device of the Future May Be… Paper” online, I found it a bit challenging to stay focused on the material, and didn’t particularly enjoy it.  I looked forward to it being over, but was interested to see what Mangen’s research would prove about the cognitive and emotional experience of reading.  The more I read, the more I began to agree with Keim that screens and paper should be viewed as complementary interfaces.  What I found to be most interesting about this article was what the technology industry was attempting to do to make electronic interfaces more book like.  Thinking about the Judaken’s interview with Robert Darnton, I don’t think we have to worry about the future of libraries.

Even though e-readers and tablets are becoming more popular, Ferris Jabr in “Why the Brain Prefers Paper?” explores what different types of reading are more suited to reading on paper or reading on devices. With the migration to digital mediums, how do we re-engage the brain to keep it creating the language connections that we developed from the written word on paper?  I think the most interesting parts of this article are the personal preferences that we all have in regard to not only paperback or hardback, but electronic or hard copy.

Taking all of the readings and audio recordings this week into consideration, I believe that as much as the technology advances, there will always be paper in some capacity.  I think that we will adapt, and that people and technology will meet, but we will continue to have a need and have a desire for the touch, the feel, the sound, and the experience of hard copy book.

Citations

Jabr, Ferris (11/01/2013). “Why the brain prefers paper”. Scientific American (0036-8733), 309 (5), p. 48.

Keim, B., Why the smart reading device of the future may be … Paper | WIRED. (0014, April 29). Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/2014/05/reading-on-screen-versus-paper/

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